Our Approach

Nano-Injection Addresses Viral and Non-Viral Transfection Limitations



NanoStraws are born from conventional polymeric track-etched cell culture membranes. Membranes are coated with alumina and etched to produce fields of NanoStraws, of which the geometric parameters (diameter, thickness, and height) are fully controllable.


By piercing through membranes of cells, NanoStraws provide a pipeline for the diffusion of biomolecules directly into the cytosol.


To ensure delivery of charged cargo such as DNA plasmids, RNA strands, and proteins into the cells, a tiny electric field is applied to locally and temporarily destabilize the lipid bilayer in contact with the NanoStraws. Very low pulses are utilized in this process, which mobilizes the cargo, driving it into the cell in a dosage-controlled fashion.

Interfacing Between the Cell Membrane and NanoStraws

Due to the close interface between the cell membrane and each NanoStraw, the electric field is localized, inducing transient membrane permeability only over a miniscule area.


Short duration (20-200μs), user controllable electrical pulses with low voltage (orders of magnitude less than electroporation) serve as a valve to open the cell membrane and drive biomolecules into the cytoplasm. The cells are easily removed from the NanoStraws, after which the cell membranes close quickly and the cells are unperturbed.


Cellular engulfment of the NanoStraws significantly reduces the necessary voltage and increases homogeneity over a large area.


This gentle, stable interface with cells enables periodic deliveries and/or periodic extractions for up to several weeks, all while maintaining complete cell health and functionality.